Antihistamines And Its Influence To Immunotherapy Response
It is known that allergic asthma is a T helper 2 (Th2) polarized disease, which can be treated effectively by inhaled corticosteroids. However, many asthmatic patients do not respond to corticosteroid therapy and thus continue uncontrolled symptoms. In recent years, antihistamines have been suggested as adjuvant therapy for corticosteroid non-responders.
The use of antihistamines can influence how well someone responds to immunotherapy treatments. Immunotherapy is a treatment that uses the body’s immune system to fight cancer. It is very effective in treating certain types of cancer, such as lung cancer. However, not everyone responds well to this type of treatment. Some patients may experience only a partial response, while others may not respond.
What Are Antihistamines?
Antihistamines are drugs that block the action of histamine. Histamine is a substance produced by the body in response to an allergen. It causes the symptoms of an allergy, such as sneezing, itching, and a runny nose. Antihistamines work by blocking histamine receptors. This prevents histamine from binding to the receptors and causing an allergic reaction.
Types of Antihistamines
First-generation antihistamines are called H-1 receptor antagonists or H-1 blockers. They include drugs such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl) and chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton). These drugs are available over-the-counter and are often used to treat allergies. They are also used to treat nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. These drugs can cause drowsiness and are not recommended for use while driving or operating heavy machinery.
Second-generation antihistamines are called H-2 receptor antagonists or H-2 blockers. They include drugs such as loratadine (Claritin) and cetirizine (Zyrtec). These drugs are available over-the-counter and are less likely to cause drowsiness than first-generation antihistamines. They are also used to treat nausea, vomiting, and dizziness.
How Antihistamines Work to Treat Allergies and Asthma Symptoms
An overreaction of the immune system causes allergies to a foreign substance, such as pollen or dust. The immune system produces antibodies to fight off the foreign substance. This causes histamine to be released, which leads to the symptoms of an allergy.
Antihistamines work by blocking histamine receptors from binding to the receptors and causing an allergic reaction. They are most effective when taken before exposure to the allergen. When taken after exposure, they can still help reduce the severity of symptoms. They are available in pill form, as a syrup, or as a nasal spray.
Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the airways. The inflammation is caused by various factors, including allergies, infection, and environmental irritants. The symptoms of asthma include wheezing, coughing, and difficulty breathing. Asthma can be treated with medication, such as inhaled corticosteroids.
In some cases, antihistamines may be an adjuvant therapy to inhaled corticosteroids. This is most effective in uncontrolled asthma patients and is unresponsive to corticosteroid therapy. Antihistamines help to reduce the inflammation of the airways and improve airflow.
Effects of Antihistamines in Immunotherapy Treatments
1) Enhance T cell activation
T cells are white blood cells that play a central role in the immune response. They are activated when they bind to an antigen on the surface of a virus or bacteria. Antihistamines can help enhance T cell activation by increasing the production of interleukin-12 (IL-12). IL-12 is a cytokine involved in the development of T cell immunity.
T cell activation is necessary for the development of immunity to infections. Antihistamines can help improve vaccines’ efficacy by enhancing T cell activation.
A few studies have looked at the effect of antihistamines on immunotherapy treatments. One study found that loratadine, a second-generation antihistamine, enhanced the efficacy of an influenza vaccine in mice. The study found that loratadine increased the production of IL-12 and enhanced T cell immunity. Another study looked at the effect of cetirizine, a second-generation antihistamine, on immunotherapy treatments for cancer. The study found that cetirizine enhanced the efficacy of immunotherapy treatments by increasing the production of IL-12.
2) Modulate the immune system
Antihistamines modulate the immune system by blocking the action of histamine, which is a molecule that plays a role in the immune response. Histamine is involved in the body’s inflammatory response, and it can also stimulate the production of antibodies. Antihistamines can also block the action of other immune system molecules, such as leukotrienes and cytokines.
3) Affect metabolism of certain drugs
Immunotherapy treatments often use drugs that are metabolized by the liver. Antihistamines can inhibit the metabolism of these drugs, which may increase their levels in the body and increase the side effects. The metabolism of immunotherapy drugs is often monitored, and the dose may be adjusted if necessary.
4) Improve symptoms
In some cases, antihistamines may be used to improve the symptoms of allergies or asthma. Antihistamines can help to reduce the inflammation of the airways and improve airflow. This can help relieve the symptoms of wheezing, coughing, and difficulty breathing.
Side Effects of Antihistamines
The most common side effect of antihistamines is drowsiness. Others include dry mouth, dizziness, headache, and stomach upset. The effects are more common with first-generation antihistamines. Second-generation antihistamines are less likely to cause these side effects.
Antihistamines can interact with other medications, so speak with a doctor before taking them. Antihistamines should not be used in place of immunotherapy treatments. They should be used in addition to these treatments to help improve their efficacy.
If you consider taking antihistamines, speak with your doctor about the risks and benefits. Antihistamines can help to improve the symptoms of allergies or asthma and enhance the efficacy of immunotherapy treatments. However, they can also cause side effects and interact with other medications. ENT doctor in Philadelphia PA can help you manage your allergies.
Ways to Prevent or Reduce Side Effects of Antihistamines
1) Follow the instructions on the label
Take antihistamines as directed by the manufacturer or your doctor. Do not take more than the recommended dose.
2) Choose the right product
There are many different types and brands of antihistamines. Some work better for certain people than others. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist about which product may be right for you.
3) Start with a lower dose
If you are taking an over-the-counter product, start with the lowest dose. You can increase the dose if needed.
4) Do not take more than the recommended amount.
Some people may need to avoid antihistamines altogether. If you have asthma or other breathing problems, talk to your doctor before taking antihistamines.
In conclusion, antihistamines can help to improve the symptoms of allergies or asthma and enhance the efficacy of immunotherapy treatments. However, they can also cause side effects and interact with other medications. The use of antihistamines should be discussed with a doctor. Do not take more than the recommended dose. Some people may need to avoid antihistamines altogether.